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パズドラ ハーデスの元ネタ・神話とは?

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『ハーデス』の元ネタ・神話をまとめました。



冥界神・ハーデスの元ネタ・神話とは?


かつてのパズドラでは
かなり評価が高いモンスターでしたが
現在はちょっと微妙……?

ハーデス、あるいはハデスは
どこかで耳にしたことがあるのではないでしょうか。

例えば、ディズニーのヘラクレスでは
ハデスはゼウスを倒そうと画策しますよね。


131.jpg

ハーデースは
ギリシア神話の冥府の神です。

例外的に一部の神話では
オリュンポス十二神の1柱としても
伝えられてもいます。

日本語では長母音を省略してハデス
あるいはハーデスなどとも呼ばれます。

クロノスとレアーの子で
ポセイドーンとゼウスの兄です。
妻はペルセポネー。

オリュンポス内でもゼウス
ポセイドーンに次ぐ実力を持ちます。

後に冥府が地下にあるとされるようになったことから
地下の神ともされます。

普段冥界に居てオリュムポスには来ないため
オリュムポス十二神には入らない
とされる場合が多いです。

また、さらに後には豊穣神
(作物は地中から芽を出して成長する)
としても崇められるようになりました。

パウサニアースの伝えるところによれば
エーリスにその神殿があったといわれています。


冥界の支配者ハデスは
決して邪悪ではありませんでしたが
その性質から"不吉さ"がつきまとい
人々に恐れられました。

ハデスは、死者の霊が行く地下の国
すなわち冥界の支配者で
その性質から神々を含む
すべての者に忌み嫌われました。

確かに彼は
一度冥界へ足を踏み入れた者に対しては
決して帰還を許ささない厳格さを持ち
ときに冷酷非情な決定を下しましたが
決して邪悪な神というわけではありません。

しかし、古代ギリシア人は
ハデスの名を呼ぶこと自体を不吉と考え
しばしばプルトン(富める者の意)
などの別名で呼びました。

この名は、地下の神である彼が
地中から芽生える植物を含めた
地下の富の所有者だからで
ローマ神話ではこちらの名をとり
プルトと呼ばれます。

ちなみにハデスとは
「目に見えぬ者」を意味します。

なお、直接人間の死を決定するのは
運命をつかさどる女神モイラで
死者の霊魂を冥界へ案内するのはヘルメスです。


ハデスがおさめる冥界は
仏教の地獄でもなければ
キリスト教の煉獄でもありません。

未来永劫の罰を与えられた者が行く場所は
冥界のさらに奥深いところにあるタルタロスです。

神々を冒涜(ぼうとく)した重罪人は
この無間地獄で永遠に苦しむのです。




また、神々に愛されたごく一部の者は
死後エリュシオンの野に移って
幸せに暮らすと考えられました。

雪も雨も嵐もないこの場所は
いわば極楽浄土、パラダイスです。

ここにはカドモスやアキレウスセ
といった英雄たちが住んでいるといわれます。


冥界の王ハデスは
穀物の女神デメテルの娘
ペルセポネを略奪しました。

娘を奪われたデメテルの悲しみは
世界中に飢饉を起こしました。

ハデスは冥界に
こもりっぱなしだったから
他の神々と違って、恋愛とは無縁でした。

そんな彼が
ゼウスとデメテルの娘
ペルセポネに恋をしましたが
まともに結婚を申し込んでも
娘を溺愛するデメテルに
反対きれることは目に見えていました。

そこでハデスは、ゼウスの承認のもと
ある強行作戦に出ました。

その日、野原で花を摘んでいたペルセポネは
ひときわ美しい水仙に魅せられ
その花に近づきました。

すると突然、大地が割け
暗闇の中からハデスが現れました。

ハデスは泣き叫ぶ彼女を
大地の下の冥界へと連れ去りました。

デメテルは食事もとらずに
娘を探していましたが
やがて太陽神へリオスから真相を聞きます。

激怒した女神は
それ以降オリュムポスの集会には顔を出さず
貧しい老婆に変身して
人間たちの世界に身を隠しました。

穀物の女神が仕事を放棄したため
大地は荒れ果て
人々は飢えに苦しむようになりました。

事の重大さに気づいたゼウスは
ハデスにペルセポネを
地上へ返すよう命じますが
彼女は冥界でザクロの実を食べていたので
すでに冥界の住民となっていました。


しかし、これでは
デメテルの怒りはおさまらず
飢饉も終わりません。

しかたなくゼウスは双方が
納得するような妥協案を出しました。

その結果、ペルセポネは
1年の3分の1はハデスのもとで暮らし
1年の3分の2は母親のもとで
暮らすことになりました。

デメテルは娘が地上に戻ると喜んで仕事に励んだので
地上には花力咲き誇り
草木が生い茂り、穀物が実りました。

しかし、娘が冥界に帰ると
デメテルの悲しみとともに
地上に冬が訪れ花も草木も
枯れてしまうのでした。

結果的にペルセポネを誘拐したことで
四季が生まれたということです。


「へぇ~」と思ったら拡散 よろしくお願いします!




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