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パズドラ デーモン・デビルの元ネタ・神話とは?

今回はパズドラにも登場する
『デーモン・デビル』の元ネタ・神話をまとめました。



デーモン・デビルの元ネタ・神話とは?


パズドラでは
敵となると恐ろしい種族のモンスターですよね。

ちなみに週刊少年マガジンで連載している
「七つの大罪」が10月からアニメ化します。





それを踏まえて今回は
パズドラと漫画・アニメ 「七つの大罪」の
モチーフである七つの大罪についても
合わせて紹介します。


デヴィルとは
キリスト教における神の敵対者であり
至高の悪の権化(魔王)を意味しています。

これ一が複数形(Devils)になると
超人的な能力をもった魔王の部下を意味し
デーモンと同義になります。
いわゆる悪魔のことです。

ギリシア語のDiabolosからきていて
本来の意味は非難者または中傷者です。

旧約聖書がギリシア語に翻訳されたとき
このDiabolosという言葉はヘブル語の
サタン(Satan)に当てられました。

このサタンは
本来は神に対する人間の
忠誠心を試すことを役割とした
天使のような存在を意味していました。

デーモンは
いまでは悪魔としてデヴィルと
同様の存在ですが、本来は違う意味でした。

ギリシア語のDaimonion(神のごとき性質のもの)
からきていて下位の神格・守護神だったのです。

しかし、キリスト教においては
神はただひとつであり
ほかには存在しないとされているため
他の宗教、特にキリスト教国に
征服されて改宗を余儀なくされた人々の
もともと信仰していた宗教を否定して
その神は邪神または悪魔であるとして
それを崇拝することを禁止したのです。

それゆえに、本来「神」を意味する言葉が
偶像や邪神などの忌まわしい意味として
使われるようになったのです。

ギリシア語訳の旧約聖書が
ラテン語に訳されたとき
このギリシア語はDemon
またはDemoniumと訳されました。

1622年の欽定訳聖書では
これをDevilと訳したのですが
古いアングロ・サクソン語の
Fiend(敵)という言葉を
使用する者もいました。

その後の聖書においては
この部分をDemonに取り替えたり
Devilのままにしてあったりといろいろです。

こうして、元来
区別されていた種類の悪魔や精霊たちが
Devil, Demon, Fiendの
交換可能な翻訳語によって
一体化されてしまったのです。

その上、魔王(the Devil)は
サタン以外にもいろいろな名前で
呼ばれるようになりました。

ベルゼブブ(Beelzebub)、アスモデウス(Asmodeus)
べへモス(Behenlemoth)、リヴァイアサン(Leviathan)
べリアル(Belial)、ルシファー(Lucifer)
などがそれです。

悪魔学者たちは
それぞれの名前ごとに違った
性格を当てはめ、その違いを探ろうとしました。

「悪魔の長」ベルゼブブは
「Barl-zebub(蝿の王)」からきたとされ
蝿を自由に操るようになりました。

アスモデウスは、「邪悪なる霊」とも呼ばれ
ペルシアの暗黒神アンラ・マンユの部下
アエーシュマからきています。

ベヘモスは、元々はカバのような
巨獣を意味していたのですが
ユダヤの終末論においては前兆となる獣を指し
中世になってサタンと
同一視されるようになったのです。

リヴァイアサン(レヴィヤタン)は旧約聖書の
「詩篇」に出てくる神に
打ち倒された海にいる龍で
鰐と鯨の中間のようなものとされていましたが
ベヘモス同様悪魔の一つとなりました。

「邪悪なる者」ベリアルは
「闇の公爵」とも呼ばれ
死海文書においては
魔王サタンと同一視されています。

ルシファーは神に継ぐ地位にいて
天使の中では最高位の六枚の翼をもった
熾天使(Seraph)でしたが
慢心して神の座に着こうとして反乱を起こし
自分の側についた天のルシファーが
堕落した後にサタンと呼ばれるようになったとも
サタンとルシファーは別の存在である
ともいわれています。

すなわち、悪魔は反乱を起こして
堕落した天使であったので
天使であったときの階級が
そのまま維持されているともいわれていて




それによると
ルシファーは勿論のこと
ベルゼブブ・リヴァイアサン
アスモデウスも熾天使でした。

ミカエルは、ルシファー
ベルゼブブ・リヴァイアサンについで
第四位でしたが、
上位の者が堕落したため天使長になったということです。

悪魔の形状はといえば
人・ヒョウ・熊・馬・狼・サソリ
鳩・仔羊などさまざまですが
人と獣を合わせたような姿を
していることもあります。

さらにその姿を自由に変えることができます。
天使の姿にさえ、なれるのです。

大気から身体をつくり出すことをしない場合
人間や動物に取りつきます。

大地の下に住む悪魔は
太陽の光に耐えられないため
野獣の体に隠れ棲むのだそうです。

悪魔に取りつかれないようにするには
ヒヨスやヨモギ、ルリハコベなど
悪魔が苦手としている植物を
近くにおいておくとよいそうです。

また、硫黄の煙で家をいぶすという方法もあります。
それでも取りつかれたならば
悪魔祓いをしなくてはなりません。

聖水、蝋燭、塩、鐘などをもちいて
福音書を朗読したり、賛美歌を歌ったり
神の名を唱えて十字を切ったりするのです。

この悪魔祓いには
実際には悪魔を祓う以外の効果もあります。

悪魔憑きのほとんどは
精神状態の異常であり
それを治療する意味もあったのです。

今では、精神科医が似たような役割を負っています。
精神科医が精神分析の影響を
受けることがあるように

悪魔祓い師も
「悪魔に取りつかれる」ことがあるので
細心の注意が必要です。

さて、悪魔学者たちは
悪魔をそれぞれのもつ力で
分類しようとしました。

アルフォンス・ド・スピナは
次の十種類に分類しています。

(1) Fates 運命を司るもの

(2) Poltergeists
物を動かすがほとんど損害を与えない
(ポルターガイストのことです)

(3) Incubus and Succubus
人の夢に現れて男には女の夢魔
女には男の夢魔精気を奪います。

サキュバスとは>>

(4) Marching hosts
1人の大集団のように現れて騒ぐ

(5) Fami Demons
人と飲み食いする

(6) Nightmare demons
夢の中で人を恐がらせる。

(7)Demons formed from semen and its odor
When men and women copulate.

男女の交接の時、精液とその臭いから形成されたもの

(8) Deceptive demons
人を惑わせるもので、男や女の姿で現れる

(9) Clean demons
聖者のみを攻撃する

(10) Demons who deceive old women
into thinking they fly to sabbats.
老女にサバトへ飛んでいこうと思わせる

また、七つの大罪を司る悪魔は次のとおりです。
(ビンスフェルドによる分類)

ルシファー(Lucifer) 傲慢・自慢(Pride)
マモン(Mammon) 食欲・強欲(Avarice)
アスモデウス(Asmodeus) 色欲・淫乱(Lust)
サタン(Satan) 憤怒(Anger)
ベルゼブブ(Beelzebub) 貪食・大食(Gluttony)
リヴァイアサン(Leviathan) 嫉妬(Envy)
ベルフェゴール(Belphegor) 怠惰(Sloth)

※諸説あり 順序・訳語が異なるものがある


この七つの大罪は
「鋼の錬金術師」でもキャラクター名として
登場しますよね。

週刊少年マガジンでは
「七つの大罪」が連載中で
10月にはアニメが開始されるようです。

しかも放送枠は「鋼の錬金術師」と同じ。
「マギ」も放送れていた日5枠!

ファンタジー作品は
神話がモチーフになっていることがほとんどなので
神話をなんとなく知っていると
作品をより楽しめたりしますね。


「へぇ~」と思ったら拡散 よろしくお願いします!




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by Sergio (2019-09-23 12:31) 

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